IEEE considers individuals who meet all of the following criteria to be authors:
1. Made a significant intellectual contribution to the work contained in the article.
2. Contributed to drafting, reviewing, or revising the article for intellectual content.
3. Approved the final version of the article as accepted for publication.
Anyone who contributed but does not fulfill all of these roles can be included in the article’s Acknowledgment section.


Always cite your sources.
  • Direct quotation: place verbatim text from another source in quotation marks and include a citation to the original source.
  • Paraphrase or summarize: include an in-text citation when summarizing information from another source, including ideas, processes, arguments, or conclusions.
  • Data, research results, information, graphics, or tables: cite the original source when referring to, adapting, or reusing any information from another source.
    Note that the same rules apply to your own previously published work. When in doubt, cite, but only cite the latest relevant sources that legitimately contribute to your work.

    Communicate your research findings fully and accurately. Avoid:
  • Fabrication: inventing data or results.
  • Falsification: manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results.
  • Image manipulation: inappropriate adjustment of an image, especially when that alters the scientific meaning of the image

    Submit to one publication at a time. Your submission should contain original research that has not been published before and is not currently submitted anywhere else. Technical research is often published first as preliminary findings and then later as fully developed research. IEEE supports this evolutionary publishing process provided that:
    1. The article undergoes standard peer review.
    2. The later version contains substantially more technical information than the earlier version.
    3. The later version cites the earlier version and clearly indicates how the two versions differ.


    IEEE defines plagiarism as using another’s ideas, processes, results, or words without explicitly acknowledging the original author and source. Plagiarism in any form is unacceptable and is considered a serious breach of professional conduct, with potentially severe ethical and legal consequences. Follow proper citation practices to avoid plagiarism. All IEEE articles are checked for plagiarism before publication in the IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
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